Some Important Linear Data Structures- at a glance
Circular Linked List
Circular linked list is a more complicated linked data structure. In this the elements can be placed
anywhere in the heap memory unlike array which uses contiguous locations. Nodes in a linked
list are linked together using a next field, which stores the address of the next node in the next
field of the previous node i.e. each node of the list refers to its successor and the last node points
back to the first node unlike singly linked list. It has a dynamic size, which can be determined
only at run time.
1. The advantage is that we no longer need both a head and tail variable to keep track of
the list. Even if only a single variable is used, both the first and the last list elements can
be found in constant time. Also, for implementing queues we will only need one pointer
namely tail, to locate both head and tail.
2. The disadvantage is that the algorithms have become more complicated.
Insert – Inserts a new element at the end of the list.
Delete – Deletes any node from the list.
Find – Finds any node in the list.
Print – Prints the list.
Lists : Linear data structures, contain elements, each of which point to the "next" in the sequence as demonstrated in the examples below ( Simple, Circular and Double Linked Lists are some common kinds of lists ) . Additions and removals can be made at any point in the list - in this way it differs from stacks and queues.
Some Important Data Structures and Algorithms, at a glance:
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Tutorials on Sorting- at a glance
Basic Data Structures and Algorithms
Stacks Last In First Out data structures ( LIFO ). Like a stack of cards from which you pick up the one on the top ( which is the last one to be placed on top of the stack ). Documentation of the various operations and the stages a stack passes through when elements are inserted or deleted. C program to help you get an idea of how a stack is implemented in code.
Queues First in First Out data structure (FIFO). Like people waiting to buy tickets in a queue - the first one to stand in the queue, gets the ticket first and gets to leave the queue first. Documentation of the various operations and the stages a queue passes through as elements are inserted or deleted. C Program source code to help you get an idea of how a queue is implemented in code.
Single Linked List A self referential data structure. A list of elements, with a head and a tail; each element points to another of its own kind.
Double Linked List- A self referential data structure. A list of elements, with a head and a tail; each element points to another of its own kind in front of it, as well as another of its own kind, which happens to be behind it in the sequence.
Circular Linked List Linked list with no head and tail - elements point to each other in a circular fashion.
Binary Search Trees A basic form of tree data structures. Inserting and deleting elements in them. Different kind of binary tree traversal algorithms.
Heaps - A tree like data structure where every element is lesser (or greater) than the one above it. Heap formation, sorting using heaps in O(n log n) time.
Height Balanced Trees - Ensuring that trees remain balanced to optimize complexity of operations which are performed on them.
Depth First Search - Traversing through a graph using Depth First Search in which unvisited neighbors of the current vertex are pushed into a stack and visited in that order.
Breadth First Search - Traversing through a graph using Breadth First Search in which unvisited neighbors of the current vertex are pushed into a queue and then visited in that order.
Minimum Spanning Trees: Kruskal Algorithm- Finding the Minimum Spanning Tree using the Kruskal Algorithm which is a greedy technique. Introducing the concept of Union Find.
Minumum Spanning Trees: Prim's Algorithm- Finding the Minimum Spanning Tree using the Prim's Algorithm.
Dijkstra Algorithm for Shortest Paths- Popular algorithm for finding shortest paths : Dijkstra Algorithm.
Floyd Warshall Algorithm for Shortest Paths- All the all shortest path algorithm: Floyd Warshall Algorithm
Bellman Ford Algorithm - Another common shortest path algorithm : Bellman Ford Algorithm.
Dynamic Programming A technique used to solve optimization problems, based on identifying and solving sub-parts of a problem first.
Integer Knapsack problemAn elementary problem, often used to introduce the concept of dynamic programming.
Matrix Chain Multiplication Given a long chain of matrices of various sizes, how do you parenthesize them for the purpose of multiplication - how do you chose which ones to start multiplying first?
Longest Common Subsequence Given two strings, find the longest common sub sequence between them.
Elementary cases : Fractional Knapsack Problem, Task Scheduling - Elementary problems in Greedy algorithms - Fractional Knapsack, Task Scheduling. Along with C Program source code.
Data Compression using Huffman TreesCompression using Huffman Trees. A greedy technique for encoding information.