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Solid State

A Tutorial on Solid State: Notes, Figures and Problems with Solutions

Target Audience: These notes on Co-ordination Compounds

are meant for college freshmen, or high school students in Grades 11 or 12.

They might be of use to Indian students preparing for the ISC or CBSE Class 11 and 12 Examinations, IIT JEE (main and advanced), AIEEE; students from across the world preparing for their A Level Examinations, IB (International Baccalaureate) or AP Chemistry.

Complete Tutorial with Problems, Figures and Solutions :

SolidState: Tutorial and Solved Problems

A Quick Recap of the above tutorial on Solid State Chemistry

          Amorphous and Crystalline Solids

Solid-state chemistry, also sometimes referred to as materials chemistry.

It  is the study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials.

Solid are of two types:-
1. Amorphous Solids
2.  Crystalline Solids

Amorphous Solids:-

it is a solid that lacks the long-range order characteristic of a crystal.

An Amorphous solid is a non crystalline solid in which the particles are arranged in an irregular manner, and does not have a sharp melting point.

These have short range order

3.  Thermal Expansion & conductivity are identical in all direction.  This property is called Isotropy and the substances are called isotropic.

Crystalline Solids

--It has a regular periodic arrangement of their atoms or ions

Sharp Melting Point

Conductivity have different values in different values in different direction.

Types of  Crystals


exits electrostatic forces of attraction

Hard and bad conductors of electricity

2. Molecular Solids:-

Constituents are molecules.

the forces holding these together are very weak.

The intermolecular forces are londo or dipole-dipole and or hydrogen bonds eg:- CH4

3. Covalent Solids:-

Constituents are atoms-

These are held together by covalent bonds

Very Hard, High Melting Point

Non Conductors of electricity

4. Metallic Solids

formed by metal atoms

Intermolecular Forces are metallic bonds

Constituents are cations plus delocalised electrons

Very Good Conductors of electricity

             eg:- Na, Mg

       Lattice and Basis

          1. Lattice – A collection of mathematical points in a periodic arrangement.

                         - infinite in extent
                         - all points are identically  surrounded
                         - mathematically described by translation vector

2. Basis – Set of atoms attached to each lattice point.  These are the actual      physical things that make up the material.

Space Lattice
Space lattice is an array of points showing how the molecules, atoms or ions are arranged at different sites in a three dimensional manner.

Unit Cell
It is the smallest object that represents the picture of the entire crystal. A crystal consists of a large number of unit cells.The number depends on the size of crystal.
- It is characterized by the distances a,b and c along the three edges of the unit cell and the angels 𝛂,𝛃 and 𝛄 between the pair of edges (b,c) , (c,a) and (a,b) respectively.

Crystal System:-

Cubic Crystal System:-
- A unit cell having the lattice points only at the corners is called simple cubic lattice.
(figure a)

-Face Centered Cubic lattice-
- Lattice points exists at the center of each face of the unit cell with lattice points at the corners .
(figure c)

-Body Centered Cubic Lattice-
-  Lattice point exist at the center of the body in addition to the lattice point at the corners
(figure b)