ISC Class 12: Economics Syllabus

ISC Syllabus and Books (March 2015 Examinations)

 Buy Frank ISC - Economics (Class 11) 10th Edition: Book 
Buy ISC Economics Book II for Class XII 1st Edition: Book
 
Buy Frank ISC Economics (Class 12) 14th Edition: Book
 
Buy Frank ISC Economics Papers (Class 12) 1st Edition: Book

ECONOMICS (856)

Aims:

1.To enable candidates to acquire knowledge (information) and develop an understanding of facts, terms, concepts, conventions, trends, principles, generalisations, assumptions, hypotheses, problems, processes, etc. in Economics.

2.To acquaint candidates with tools of economic analysis.

3.To develop an understanding of important economic problems.

4.To acquaint candidates with the main institutions through which the productive process is carried out.

5.To develop an understanding of the role of institutions in the functioning of an economy.

6.To enable candidates to compare their own economic structure with that of the other areas of the world.

CLASS XI

There will be two papers in the subject.

Paper I - Theory: 3 hours ……80 marks

Paper II- Project Work ……20 marks

PAPER - I (THEORY) – 80 Marks

Part 1 (20 markswill consist of compulsoryshort answer questions testing knowledge, application and skills relating to elementary / fundamental aspects of the entire syllabus.

Part II (60 marks) will consist of eight questions out of which candidates will be required to answerfive questions, each carrying 12 marks.

Note: The syllabus is intended to reflect a study of the theory of Economics with specific reference to the Indian Economy. Therefore, examples and specific references to the Indian Economy must be made wherever relevant.

1.Understanding Economics

(i)Definition of Economics: Adam Smith, Alfred Marshall, Lionel Robbins, Samuelson.

Basic understanding of economics and economic phenomena to be explained especially in the context of the concept of scarcity and allocation of resources. Students may be introduced to the main points on which the various definitions of economics could be analyzed. Features of definitions and two- three criticisms.

(ii)Micro and Macro Economics – Meaning and Difference. Basic concepts: utility, price, value, wealth, welfare, money, market, capital, investment, income, production, consumption, saving, Business cycle, Aggregate demand and Aggregate supply.

Meaning and

difference

between Micro

and Macro

Economics.

A conceptual

understanding of the terms: utility – types and features, total utility, marginal utility and diminishing marginal utility; price – definition and general rise and fall in price; Inflation: meaning, demand pull and cost push (diagrams not required); value – real vs nominal value; wealth – explanation of the term, classification (personal and social); welfare – economic welfare, social welfare and relation between wealth and welfare; money – barter economy vs money economy; market – meaning and size; capital – meaning; investment – meaning, investment as a process of capital formation; income – meaning, factor incomes; production – meaning; consumption – meaning; saving – meaning; individual saving and aggregate savings.

The above terms to be explained with the help of relevant examples.

66

(iii)Basic problems of an economy: what to produce; how to produce; for whom to produce; efficient use of resources.

The basic problem of scarcity and choice must be emphasized. As this problem is universal in character, i.e. faced by all economies, irrespective of the economic system they follow, it must be explained using the concept of Production Possibility Curve. The three problems - what to produce, how to produce and for whom to produce - must be highlighted. The role of technology and a shift in the Production Possibility Curve must be explained.

(iv)Types of economies: developed and developing; Economic systems: capitalism, socialism and mixed economy; mechanism used to solve the basic problems faced by each economy.

Characteristics of developed and developing economies; Development experience of India: a comparison with neighbouring country (China) in terms of growth, population and sectoral development (introducing regional and global economic grouping such as SAARC,

European Union, ASEAN, G-8, G-20 - basic knowledge); different types of economic systems; definition, features, merits and demerits of capitalism, socialism and mixed economic system; mechanisms used to solve the basic problems under each economic system to be explained with the help of examples. The role of government along with the price mechanism to be emphasized.

2.Indian Economic Development

(i) Introduction.

A brief introduction of the state of the Indian Economy on the eve of independence. Main features, problems and policies of agriculture, industry and foreign trade.

(ii) Parameters of Development.

Parameters of development: per capita income and human development index.

(iii)Planning and economic development in India.

An overview of Macro objectives (sectoral objectives not required) and major thrusts of the different five year plans in India.

(iv)Structural Changes in the Indian Economy after liberalization.

Need, meaning, significance and features of liberalization, globalization and privatization of Indian Economy; disinvestment: meaning.

(v)Current challenges facing Indian Economy.

Poverty – absolute and relative, main programmes for poverty alleviation: A critical assessment of PAPs (Poverty Alleviation Programmes); Rural development. Credit and marketing: role of cooperatives, agricultural diversification; alternate farming /organic farming: meaning and importance.

Human Capital formation: How people become resource; role of human capital in economic development; Growth of education sector in India; Employment – formal and informal (Meaning only); Unemployment- types of unemployment, causes for unemployment, Policy measures.

(vi)Economic growth and development.

Economic Growth and Development – Meaning and difference. Comparative study of Indian and Chinese economies on the following indicators:

(a)Unemployment (b) GDP growth (c) GDP per capita and GDP PPP (d) direct foreign investment (e) inflation (f) poverty.

(vii)Sustainable Development.

Effect of Economic Development on Resources and Environment.

Understanding the concept of Sustainable development; Need for sustainable development for improving the quality of life - looking at the deteriorating quality of air, water, food over time, developing an appreciation to sustain at least what exists for the generations to come.

Global warming – meaning and effects.

67

3.Statistics

(i)Statistics: definition, scope and limitations of statistics.

Statistics: definition, scope and limitations of statistics. Special emphasis to be laid on importance of statistics in economics.

(ii)Collection, organization and presentation of data.

Collection of data - Sources of data: primary, secondary. Methods of collecting data: Some important sources of collecting secondary data; ways of collecting primary data; organization of data: meaning and types of variables, frequency; presentation of data: tabular and diagrammatic presentation (bar diagram, pie, line, histogram, polygon and ogive curve).

(iii)Measures of Central Value: average defined; type of averages: arithmetic mean; simple and weighted; median and mode; ungrouped and grouped data; numericals, relationship between mean, median and mode.

Measures of Central Value: average defined; type of averages: arithmetic mean; simple and weighted; median and mode; ungrouped and grouped data. Numericals only on mean, median and mode for both ungrouped and grouped data. Relationship between mean, median and mode – the nature of the frequency distribution – symmetrical, positively skewed and negatively skewed.

(iv)Measures of dispersion: definition, methods of studying variation - range; standard deviation; quartile deviation; the mean or average deviation; coefficient of variation.

Numericals on measures of dispersion required.

(v)Correlation: introduction, scatter diagram; Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation; Spearman’s coefficient of correlation.

Meaning and significance of correlation to be explained along with types and degrees. Scatter diagram, Karl Pearson’s method (two variables, ungrouped data); Spearman’s Rank Correlation to be explained with the help of numericals.

(vi)Index numbers: simple and weighted - meaning, types and purpose. Problems involved in constructing a Price Index Number.

What does an Index number show, measure or indicate (like a Price Index Number). Difference between simple and weighted – Price weighted or quantity weighted. Laspayre’s, Paasche and Fisher’s methods of index numbers (to be explained with the help of numericals). Wholesale Price Index, Consumer Price Index and Index of Industrial Production should be explained. Uses of Index Numbers. Problems involved in constructing Price Index Number – the choice of the base year, the number of commodities to be included (coverage), choice of prices and the method to be used.

(vii) Some Mathematical Tools used in Economics.

Equation of a straight line and slope of a straight line.

PAPER II – PROJECT WORK – 20 Marks

Candidates will be expected to have completedtwo projects from any topic covered in Theory.

Mark allocation for each Project [10 marks]:

Overall format

1 mark

 

 

Content

4 marks

 

 

Findings

2 marks

 

 

Viva-voce based on the Project

3 marks

 

 

A list of suggested Projects is given below:

1.Study consumer awareness amongst households through designing a questionnaire and collection of primary data.

2.Prepare a report on productivity awareness among enterprises through use of statistical data from statistical tables published in Newspapers / RBI Bulletin / Budget /Census report / Economic survey, etc.

3.Make a study of two cooperative institutions (example milk cooperatives, etc.) with a view to compare the organizational and financial structure of the organizations, production capacity and output, marketing strategies, sales, market share, etc.

4.Study in detail the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and its impact on Indian economy

68

5.Prepare a report on the various poverty alleviation and employment generation programmes started in India, with special focus on MNREGA.

6.Compare the status of women of your State with that at the National level for the last ten years, on the basis of educational level, employment, etc.

7.Prepare a report on the forest cover in India, highlighting the following aspects:

(a)Five States/Union Territories having higher and lower forest cover and compare the extent of forest coverage.

(b)Causes for decrease in forest cover in the Country.

(c)Measures adopted by the Central/State Governments to increase the forest cover.

CLASS XII

There will be two papers in the subject.

Paper I - Theory: 3 hours ……80 marks

Paper II- Project Work ……20 marks

PAPER - I (THEORY) – 80 Marks

Part 1 (20 markswill consist of compulsoryshort answer questions testing knowledge, application and skills relating to elementary / fundamental aspects of the entire syllabus.

Part II (60 marks) will consist of eight questions out of which candidates will be required to answerfive questions, each carrying 12 marks.

Note: The syllabus is intended to reflect a study of the theory of Economics with specific reference to the Indian Economy. Therefore, examples and specific references to the Indian Economy must be made wherever relevant.

1.Micro Economic Theory

(i)Demand: meaning, factors affecting demand; Demand function; Law of Demand; derivation of demand curve; movement and shift of the demand curve; exceptions to the Law of Demand.

Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility, Law of Equimarginal Utility, consumer’s equilibrium through utility approach (Cardinal) and indifference curve analysis (Ordinal).

The concept of demand: meaning. A demand function to be specified incorporating the determinants of demand. Diagrams should be used in explaining the Law of Demand, its derivation using demand schedule. Derivation of market demand curve from individual demand curve.

(a) Cardinal Utility Analysis: meaning of utility, total utility, marginal utility, relationship of TU and MU, Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility (schedule and diagram, Only assumptions to be taught, criticisms not required), Consumer’s equilibrium – Law of Equimarginal Utility (statement, schedule) and conditions of consumer’s equilibrium using marginal utility; (b) Ordinal Utility Analysis: Indifference Curve – its meaning and properties (including MRS and DMRS), indifference map, consumer’s budget line, Consumer’s equilibrium – condition (to be explained with the help of a diagram only).

(ii)Elasticity of demand: meaning, types of elasticity of demand, measurement of elasticity of demand; factors affecting elasticity of demand.

Various methods of measurement of the elasticity of demand: point method - percentage method, expenditure method and geometric method. (Numericals required on percentage method only). The cross and income elasticity of demand must be explained. Degrees of elasticity of demand to be explained. Use diagrams wherever necessary.

(iii)Supply: meaning; difference between stock and supply; determinants of supply; Law of Supply; movement and shift of the supply curve; elasticity of supply

Difference between stock (actual supply) and supply (intended supply) with the help of relevant examples. A supply function should be specified and explained. Law of Supply, supply schedule and supply curve. Derivation of market supply curve from individual supply

69

curve. Movement and shift of the supply curve, exceptions to the Law of Supply. Elasticity of Supply: Meaning and measurement of elasticity of supply by percentage method and geometric method.

(iv)Market Mechanism: Equilibrium and disequilibrium; Equilibrium price and effect of changes in demand and supply on the equilibrium price. Simple applications of tools of demand and supply.

A basic understanding of the concept of equilibrium. The effects of changes in demand and supply - both along the curves and shift of the curves to be explained. Basic understanding of Price control, rationing, Price ceiling and Floor price with the help of demand and supply curves.

(v)Concept of production and production function (short run and long run production function), returns to a factor, total, average and marginal physical products; Law of Variable Proportions and its three stages.

A production function (concept only). Law of Variable Proportions: statement, assumptions, schedule (for the purpose of understanding and not for testing), diagram and explanation to the three stages.

(vi)Cost and revenue: Basic concepts of cost; fixed cost, variable cost, total cost, marginal cost and average cost – their relationships; opportunity cost; short run and long run cost curves. Revenue: meaning; average revenue, marginal revenue and total revenue and their relationships under perfect competition and imperfect competition, Producer’s equilibrium.

Basic concepts – private cost, economic cost, social cost, money cost, real cost, explicit cost, implicit cost.

Cost concepts – Fixed cost, variable cost, total cost, marginal cost, average cost with schedule and diagram; relationship between average cost, marginal cost, total cost (only concepts of long run and short run cost curves, derivations not required). Opportunity cost – meaning only. Difference between accounting cost and opportunity cost.

Revenue – Average revenue, marginal

revenue, total revenue – concepts and relationships under perfect competition and imperfect competition. Producer’s

equilibrium (Profit maximization goal) – meaning; conditions: (a) TR and TC approach along with diagram (b) MR and MC approach along with diagram.

(vii)Main market forms: perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, monopoly, monopsony; characteristics of the various market forms; equilibrium of a firm in perfect competition under short run and long run.

Features of perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, monopoly and monopsony (meaning only). Equilibrium of a firm in perfect competition under short run (explanation and diagram, shut down point and break even point) and long run (diagram not required).

2.Theory of Income and Employment

Basic concepts and determination of Income and Employment

The concept of demand (exante) and effective (expost) demand. Aggregate demand and its components, propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal), equilibrium output; investment multiplier (its meaning and mechanism). Meaning of full employment. Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them.

3.Money and Banking

(i)Money: meaning, functions of money, supply of money.

Meaning, kinds of money, functions of money

(primary, secondary and contingent) to be explained; supply of money (only meaning of M1, M2, M& M4).

(ii)Banks: functions of commercial bank; high powered money, credit creation by commercial banks; Central Bank: functions.

Basic understanding of the functions of commercial banks, credit creation process. The regulatory role of the Central Bank, its functions and the way it controls the flow of credit needs to be explained. A brief mention may be made of quantitative (CRR, SLR, Bank Rate policy and Open Market Operations) and qualitative methods.

70

4.Balance of Payment and Exchange Rate

Balance of Payment – meaning, components; foreign exchange – meaning, determination of exchange rate (Flexible).

Balance of Payment - Meaning and components; Causes of disequilibrium and how the disequilibrium can be corrected; Foreign Exchange Rate – meaning, meaning of fixed and flexible exchange rate, determination of exchange rate in a free market. Concepts of depreciation, appreciation, devaluation and revaluation (meaning only).

5.Public Finance

(i)Fiscal Policy: meaning and instruments of fiscal policy.

Meaning and instruments of fiscal policy – Public Revenue: Meaning, taxes (Meaning and types), difference between direct and indirect taxes; Public Expenditure: Meaning and importance; Public Debt: Meaning and redemption; Deficit Financing: meaning.

(ii)Government Budget: meaning, types and components.

Meaning and types of Government budget – union, state; components – revenue and capital. Concept of deficit budget: revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, primary deficit – their meaning and implications.

6.National Income

(i)Circular flow of Income.

A simple model explaining the circular flow of income with two, three and four sector models with leakages and injections.

(ii)Concepts and definition of NY, GNP, GDP, NNP, private income, personal income, personal disposable income, National Disposable Income and per capita income; relationship between the income concepts.

A brief understanding of the mentioned national income aggregates is needed. The concepts of GNP and NNP should be explained both at factor cost and market prices, real GDP and nominal GDP, National Disposable Income (Gross and Net), GDP and Welfare, GDP as an indicator of Economic welfare.

(iii)Methods of measuring National Income: product or value-added method; income

method and expenditure method with simple numericals based on them.

Simple numericals based on all the methods to be covered for better understanding of the concept. Precautions and difficulties of measuring National Income for each method.

PAPER II – PROJECT WORK – 20 Marks

Candidates will be expected to have completedtwo projects from any topic covered in Theory.

The practical work will be assessed by the teacher and a Visiting Examiner appointed locally and approved by the Council.

Mark allocation for each Project [10 marks]:

Overall format

1 mark

Content

4 marks

 

 

Findings

2 marks

 

 

Viva-voce based on the Project

3 marks

A list of suggested Projects is given below:

1.Study a Public Sector Enterprise with reference to its relevance to the Indian Economy and its future prospects. Analyse the trend of its growth for the last ten years.

2.Conduct a Socio Economic survey of a locality (minimum sample size should be 30 households) with reference to:

(a)Demographic features.

(b)Consumption Pattern – Expenditure on necessities, comforts and luxuries.

(c)Occupational structure.

3.Compare the contribution made by different sectors of the economy towards GDP growth during the planning period.

4.Prepare a report on the competition in the Aviation Sector in India with reference to:

(a)Performance of the Public Sector and Private Sector.

(b)Operational strategies adopted by budget/low cost carriers.

5.Make a comparative analysis of lending performance of five Commercial Banks in the past six years with reference to the changing CRR and SLR.

71

6.Many thinkers believe that we are rapidly depleting our natural resources. Assume that there are only two inputs (labour and natural resources) producing two goods (wheat and gasoline) with no improvement in technology over time. Show what would happen to the Production Possibility Curve over time as natural resources are exhausted. How would invention and technological improvement modify your answer? On the basis of this example, explain why it is said “economic growth is a race between depletion and invention.”

7.Make a comparative study of the allocation of financial resources of the Central Government Budget on Agriculture, Defence, Industry and Education in the last ten years. Prepare a report on your observations.

8.Prepare a trend Analysis of Growth and Productivity of any one industry such as:

Textile / Automobiles / Electronic andTele-communication, etc. in India for the past ten years.

NOTE: No question paper for Practical work will be set by the Council.

72